• Japanese invade Netherlands East Indies (NEI) – 20.000 Dutch people fled to Australia (most of Indonesian decent or from mixed parents).
  • NEI-Government-in-Exile established in Australia – the first and only one ever operated in Australia. Wacol became the headquarters of the NEI-Government-in-Exile.
  • The Dutch transported Indonesian political prisoners from Tanah Merah in Dutch New Guinea to Australia (mostly well-educated people)
  • Australia forces the Dutch to release these prisoners, amazingly many of them became employed at the NEI-Government-in Exile (where they had easy access to communication equipment to stay in contact with their compatriots in Indonesia).
  • These Indonesian were able to harness support for a free Indonesia. Australian Unions established a boycott of all Dutch re-colonialisation shipping to NEI (Black Armada) the largest maritime boycott ever.
  • Australia played a key role in the negotiations of a free Indonesia (and simultaneously in the creation of the UN).
  • Australian military established the first ever peace mission of the UN (in Indonesia).
  • The case of a stranded NEI women Annie O’Keefe caused a ruling from the High Court that became the start of the end of the White Australia Policy.
  • Because the Dutch lost Indonesia, most of the related history got buried and was never looked at.

Paul Budde

NEI – Table of Content